An አዮኒክ ቦንድ is defined as a type of linkage formed between two oppositely charged ions by an electrostatic force of attraction. Let us discuss different examples of ionic bonds as well as ionic compounds.
- ሶዲየም ክሎራይድ (ናሲል)
- ሶዲየም ብሮማይድ (NaBr)
- Sodium Fluoride (NaF)
- Potassium chloride (KCl)
- Potassium Iodide (KI)
- Potassium Bromide (KBr)
- Potassium Fluoride (KF)
- Lithium Iodide (LiI)
- Lithium Oxide (Li2O)
- Calcium oxide (CaO)
- Calcium chloride (CaCl2)
- Aluminium sulfate [Al2(SO4)3]
- Barium sulfate (BaSO4)
ሶዲየም ክሎራይድ (ናሲል)
In Sodium Chloride, the Sodium (Na) has 1 and the Chlorine (Cl) has 7 ቫልንስ ኤሌክትሮን. Therefore, Na loses one valence electron and Cl accepts it to have 8 electrons in both of their valence shells to achieve an octet-filled-up ኤሌክትሮን ውቅር.
NaCl → Na+ + Cl-
ሶዲየም ብሮማይድ (NaBr)
In Sodium Bromide, the Sodium atom has one electron in its outermost shell and the Bromine atom has 7 electrons in its valence shell. Na loses one electron which is accepted by Br to complete its octet. Na becomes Na+ and Br becomes Br- after exchanging the valence electron.
NaBr→ Na+ + Br-
Sodium Fluoride (NaF)
In ሶዲየም ፍሎራይድ NaF, to complete the octet state Fluorine atom needs 1 electron in its valence shell, which it gains from the sodium atom who has one electron in its valence shell. Na acquires positive [Na]+ and F acquires negative charge [F]– and an ionic bond is formed in NaF.
NaF→ Na+ + F-
ፖታስየም ክሎራይድ (KCl)
In KCl, the Potassium has one and the Chlorine has 7 electrons in their respective valence shells. Cl needs 1 electron to complete its octet state whereas K has one extra electron to become octet-filled-up. The Formation Ionic bonds take place between K and Cl after exchanging valence electrons.
KCl→ K+ + Cl-
Potassium Iodide (KI)
In KI, the Iodine has 7 valence electrons in its valence shell and to get its octet state complete, it requires one more electron which it accepts from potassium (K). K loses one electron and acquires a positive charge while iodine takes this electron and acquires a negative charge forming ionic bonds.
KI→ K+ + I-
Potassium Bromide (KBr)
In Potassium Bromide KBr, Potassium has 1 electron in its valence shell whereas Bromine has seven electrons. Hence K loses its only valence electron to become K+ and Br gains this electron and becomes negatively charged Br–. The ionic bonds are formed between K and Br.
KBr→ K+ + Br-
Potassium Fluoride (KF)
In Potassium Fluoride KF, the Fluorine atom has 7 electrons and the Potassium atom has one electron in its valence shell. To get a stable configuration (octet-filled-up configuration) fluorine needs one electron in its valence shell. Potassium transfers its valence electron to Fluorine and forms an ionic bond.
KF → K+ + F-
Lithium Iodide (LiI)
In this ionic compound, the Iodine has 7 electrons in its valence shell to complete its octet, it requires 1 electron. On the other hand, Lithium has a valency of one electron. It loses its one valence electron and becomes a unipositive ion and by gaining of electron Iodine acquires a negative charge.
LiI → Li+ + I-
Lithium Oxide (Li2O)
In Li2O, each Lithium has one electron in its outermost shell, and oxygen has six electrons in its valence shell.To attain an octet state oxygen needs 2 electrons. Both the Li atoms lose electrons and become positively charged while oxygen gains those 2 electrons and becomes negatively charged.
Li2O → 2Li+ + O2-
ካልሲየም ኦክሳይድ (CaO)
In ካልሲየም ኦክሳይድ, Ca has 2 valence electrons while oxygen has six valence electrons in its valence shell. To complete its octet oxygen requires two more electrons. Calcium loses its 2 electrons and acquires +2 charge and oxygen gains those electrons, and acquires 2- charge.
CaO → Ca2+ + O2-
ካልሲየም ክሎራይድ (CaCl2)
The two valance electrons of calcium are transferred to the valance shell of each of the chlorine atoms. Each of the chlorine accepts those electrons and fills its octet as they already have seven electrons in their respective valence shell. Therefore, calcium becomes Ca2+ and each of the Cl becomes Cl-.
CaCl2 → Ca2+ + 2Cl-
Aluminium sulfate [Al2(SO4)3]
Aluminium already has three electrons in its valence shell. Therefore, two of the aluminum can donate (2*3) = 6 electrons. Each of the sulfate ions contains a -2 charge. Thus, the aluminum sulfate molecule is formed between the interaction of two opposite charges.
Al2(SO4) → 2Al3+ + 3SO42-
Barium sulfate (BaSO4)
Barium has two valence electrons and after transferring those electrons, Ba becomes Ba2+. Sulfate ion has a -2 charge. Therefore, there is an electrostatic attraction between Ba2+ and SO42-, and the ionic compound, BaSO4 is formed.
BaSO4 → Ba2+ + SO42-
Ionic Bond Examples in Real Life
The following ionic bonds examples are observed in daily life
- Table salt: Table salt or NaCl is an ionic crystalline compound
- Iodized salt: It is the mixture of table salt with some salt of iodine.
- Fluoride in toothpaste: Fluoride ion is the most common ingredient in all toothpastes.
- Baking soda: Baking soda is nothing but the sodium bicarbonate which is also an ionic compound.
- Washing soda: The chemical name of washing soda is sodium carbonate decahydrate, Na2CO3. 10H2O.
- Household bleach: It is the dilute solution of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl).
- Preservative: Sodium benzoate is used as a preservative.
- Anti-caking agent: Magnesium carbonate, MgCO3 is used as anti-caking agent.
- Ingredients in antacids: Antacids generally consist of magnesium carbonate, magnesium trisilicate, calcium carbonate and sodium carbonate.
Strong Ionic Bond Examples
The examples of strong ionic bonds are listed below-
- ማግኒዥየም ኦክሳይድ (ኤምጂኦ)
- Barium sulfate (BaSO4)
- Aluminium sulfate [Al2(SO4)3]
- Magnesium sulfate (MgSO4)
- Magnesium carbonate (MgCO3)
- Calcium oxide (CaO)
- Barium carbonate (BaCO3)
Weak Ionic Bond Examples
The examples of weak ionic bonds are listed below-
- Cesium fluoride (CsF)
- Barium fluoride (BaF2)
- Silver fluoride (AgF)
- Lithium iodide (LiI)
- ሊቲየም ብሮማይድ (LiBr)
- Lithium sulfate (LiSO4)
- Potassium fluoride (KF)
Is CaCl2 an ionic compound?
Due to opposite charges, ionic bonds formed in the CaCl2 compound. In CaCl2, Calcium has two valence electrons and each Chlorine has one electron. Ca loses both the electrons which are gained by each Cl and completes its octet. Calcium acquires +2 while each Chlorine acquires -1 charge.
What is an ionic bond?
When the attractive force binds unlike ions together then this is known as an ionic bond. Ionic bonds are also termed an electrovalent bond.
What is the difference between an ionic bond and a covalent bond?
|አዮኒክ ቦንድ||ኮቨንተሪ ትስስር|
|ማራኪው ሃይል ከ ion በተለየ መልኩ ሲተሳሰር ይህ ionክ ቦንድ በመባል ይታወቃል።||ኤሌክትሮኖችን በማጋራት ሁለት አተሞች ሲረጋጉ ይህ ኮቫለንት ቦንድ በመባል ይታወቃል።|
|Ionic bond forms between electropositive and electronegative atoms.||Covalent bond forms between the same or different atoms.|
|አቅጣጫዊ ያልሆነ ትስስር ነው።||አቅጣጫዊ ትስስር ነው።|
|Ionic compounds (attached through ionic bonds) have high melting and boiling point.||Covalent compounds (held through covalent bonds) have low melting and boiling points.|
|አዮኒክ ውህዶች በፖላር መፈልፈያዎች ውስጥ የሚሟሟ እና በፖላር ባልሆኑ ፈሳሾች ውስጥ የማይሟሟ ናቸው።||የኮቫለንት ውህዶች በዋልታ መፈልፈያዎች ውስጥ የማይሟሟ እና በፖላር ባልሆኑ መሟሟት ውስጥ የሚሟሟ ናቸው።|
What are the characteristics of an ionic compound?
- አዮኒክ ቦንድ ኤሌክትሮቫለንት ቦንድ ተብሎም ይጠራል።
- ኃይለኛ ኤሌክትሮስታቲክ የመሳብ ኃይል አዎንታዊ እና አሉታዊ ionዎችን አንድ ላይ ያዙ.
- አዮኒክ ውህዶች ጠንካራ እና ተሰባሪ ናቸው።
- They usually have a high melting point.
- Solid-state ionic compounds are bad conductors of electricity while they are good conductors of electricity when melted or dissolved in solvents.
- አዮኒክ ውህዶች በፖላር መፈልፈያዎች ውስጥ የሚሟሟ እና በፖላር ባልሆኑ ፈሳሾች ውስጥ የማይሟሟ ናቸው።
- በብረት እና በብረታ ብረት መካከል የ Ionic ቦንድ ቅርጾች.
Ionic Bond Electronegativity
The difference in electronegativity must be greater than 1.7 to form an ionic bond. The greater the difference in electronegativity denotes the stronger the ionic bond. Therefore, an ionic bond is always formed between an electronegative and an electropositive element.
Ionic Bond Formation
The formation of ionic bonds takes place through the transfer of one or more than one electron from an electropositive element to an electronegative element. The metal loses its valence electron and the nonmetal accepts the electron to form the ionic bond.
How do identify an ionic bond?
Ionic bonds can be identified in the following different ways-
- An ionic bond is formed between a metal and a nonmetal.
- The metal atom generally belongs to either group 1 or group 2,3 and the nonmetal atom comes from group 5 or group 6.
- The name of the ionic compound is derived from the name of the metal in the first place and the nonmetal in the second place.
Ionic Bond Boiling Point and Melting Point
The compounds forming by ionic bonds always have high melting and high boiling point. The positive and negative ions are attached through a strong Coloumbic force of attraction. Therefore, a huge amount of energy is required to break the bond between the ions.
Ionic Bond Energy and Intermolecular Forces
The energy of an ionic bond can be calculated by Coloumb’s law which is F= kq1q2/r2. The energy of an ionic bond varies from 170 to 1500 KJ/mol. The intermolecular force present in an ionic bond is the electrostatic force of attraction and this is one of the strongest force presents in any compound.
Is the ionic bond polar or nonpolar?
The ionic bond is regarded as a polar bond. The polarity arises due to the difference in electronegativity between the metal and nonmetal atoms. The greater the electronegativity difference the greater polarity of the bond is.
Ionic Bond Solubility
Ionic compounds which are held by the ionic bonds are soluble in polar solvents because ionic compounds are polar. They become soluble in water, DMSO, DMF, and acetone-like polar solvents.
Ionic Bond Types
There are two types of ionic bonds in chemistry and they are-
- Binary ionic compounds contain a metal and a nonmetal. For example- NaCl
- Ionic compounds contain a metal and a polyatomic ion. Example- BaSO4.
Why do ionic bonds conduct electricity?
Ionic compounds conduct electricity in a molten (liquid) state because the ions become free to from one place to another place in a liquid state. But they cannot conduct electricity in a solid state because the ions are not able to move freely.
Why cannot carbon form an ionic bond?
Carbon cannot form ionic bonds because it has four electrons in its valence shell. To form an ionic bond, it has to gain or lose 4 electrons. Accepting or losing 4 electrons is a high-energy-taking process. Besides that, it is neither an electronegative nor an electropositive element of the periodic table.
Why ionic bond is stronger than a covalent bond?
The ionic bond is stronger than a covalent bond because the Coloumbic force of attraction is working between two oppositely charged ions in an ionic compound. Covalent bonds are formed due to the sharing of electron pairs between two atoms. The attraction force between cations and anions is very high in an ionic bond.
Why ionic bond is formed between metal and nonmetal?
An ionic bond is formed between a metal and a nonmetal because the electronegativity between them should be the highest. Metals are generally electropositive and nonmetals are generally electronegative elements in the periodic table. More the difference in electronegativity denotes a stronger ionic bond between two atoms.
The ionic bonds are formed between two elements (preferably a metal and a nonmetal) having a considerable difference in electronegativity. The strength of the ionic bond also depends upon the electronegativity difference between them.